Potential source and emission analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in China

Zhu, JX; Hirai, Y; Sakai, S; Zheng, MH (2008) Chemosphere, 73(1): S72-S77

The Chinese Government ratified the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) on 25 June 2004. As a party to the Convention, China is preparing its National Implementation Plan (NIP), which must be finished and submitted to the Conference of the Parties before November 11, 2006. The emission inventory and strategy for reducing unintentionally formed products is a very complex and difficult part of the NIP. In this paper, we analyzed the potential sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in China and calculated their possible emissions. We included municipal solid waste incineration, hazardous and medical waste incineration, pulp bleaching, sodium pentachlorophenate production and usage, illegal electrical and electronic waste ("e-waste") recycling, and ferrous and non-ferrous metal production, and prepared a preliminary analysis of dioxin emissions in China. The results show that ferrous metal production (104.2-6648.3 g TEQ), non-ferrous metal production (2.6-3389.8 g TEQ), and sodium pentachlorophenate production and usage (120-368.0 g TEQ) should be major potential sources of dioxins and furans. Moreover, municipal solid waste and hazardous and medical waste incineration (35.5 g TEQ) should also be considered high priority sources owing to a rapidly increasing incineration ratio anticipated for the near future.