Behavior of PCDD/Fs during open burning of municipal solid waste in open dumping sites

Bastian, L.; Yano, J.; Hirai, Y.; Sakai, S. (2013) Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 15(2): 229-241

Open dumping sites in Surabaya and Palembang, Indonesia, have been studied to investigate emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs), as well as the resulting soil contamination that might be caused by open burning of municipal solid waste. The emission factors of the waste residue, accounting for the ratio of waste burned, have also been characterized. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in soil from Palembang were 61-310 pg-TEQ/g (dry weight) and 6.3-32 pg-TEQ/g, respectively. In Surabaya, very low levels of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, ranging from 0.075 to 0.098 and 0.00032 to 0.095 pg-TEQ/g, respectively, were observed in soil for an open dumping site that included a top cover layer of soil above the compacted waste. The large difference in concentrations can be explained by the fact that open burning of waste is the source of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. The emission factors for the residue for PCDD/Fs ranged from 27 to 140 pg-TEQ/g, and a sensitivity analysis found that the maximum emission factor to the residue could be 5600 pg-TEQ/g. Our results indicate that emissions of PCDD/Fs can be controlled by modifying the open dumping process to one that involves depositing soil layers on top of the compacted waste.


Emissions of PCDD/Fs, Open burning of waste, Emission factor, Open dumping site